Accounting and valuation principles
General accounting principles
The consolidated annual accounts have been prepared in compliance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) issued by the Inter-national Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and with interpretations issued by the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC) as approved by the European Union (EU). Recommendation RFR 1 Supplementary Accounting Rules for Groups, issued by the Swedish Financial Reporting Board, has also been applied.
The annual accounts of the Parent Company have been prepared in accordance with the Swedish Annual Accounts Act (1995:1554) and recommendation RFR 2 Accounting for Legal Entities issued by the Swedish Financial Reporting Board. The accounting principles applied by the Parent Company and the Group are consistent with one another, except in the accounting of pensions, untaxed reserves and appropriations. See also “Parent Company accounting principles”.
On 20 June 2019, the Board of Directors approved the annual accounts of the Parent Company and the consolidated accounts for publication. The Parent Company’s income statement and balance sheet and the consolidated income statement and balance sheet will be submitted for approval by the Annual General Meeting on 29 August 2019.
Presentation of the annual report
The financial accounts are presented in millions of Swedish kronor (SEK million) unless otherwise stated. The functional currency of the Parent Company is the Swedish krona (SEK), and this is also the currency of presentation for the Parent Company and the Group.
Assets and liabilities are recognised at their historical cost, except for certain financial assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value. Assets held for sale are recognised at the previous carrying amount or fair value, less selling expenses, whichever is lower.
Preparing financial accounts in accordance with IFRS requires management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions affecting the application of the accounting principles and the carrying amounts for assets, liabilities, income and expenses. These estimates and assumptions are based on historical experience and several other factors deemed reasonable under the circumstances at the time. Estimates and assumptions are reviewed regularly.
The annual accounts have been prepared in accordance with IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements, with the effect that separate income statements and balance sheets, as well as statements of other comprehensive income, financial position, changes in equity and cash flow, are prepared, with notes being provided detailing the accounting principles and disclosures applied.
Receivables and liabilities, as well as income and expenses, are offset only where required or expressly permitted in accordance with IFRS.
New standards and interpretations applied as of financial year 2018/2019
IFRS 9 Financial Instruments
IIFRS 9 Financial instruments, which replaces the former standard IAS 39, states principles for the accounting of financial instruments and has been applied by Addtech since 1 April 2018. The introduction of IFRS 9 has not had any effect on the carrying amounts. The new criteria for classifying financial assets have not resulted in any changed basis of valuation for the assets held by Addtech. Since Addtech does not apply hedge accounting, related new principles in IFRS 9 have not had any effect. Due to the low level of historical credit losses and the high creditworthiness of existing customers, the new impairment model, based on expected loan losses, is not deemed to have any significant effects compared with previous provisions for customer losses. In essence, other parts of IFRS 9 entail no changes compared with previous principles.
IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers
IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers entails new revenue accounting requirements. The Group began applying the standard as of 1 April 2018 with a forward-looking retroactive transition in accordance with IFRS 15, which also entails comparative note information not being provided. An analysis of the effects of IFRS 15 for the Group was performed in 2017/2018. The analysis concluded that IFRS 15 had no effect on the accrual of the Group’s revenues. However, IFRS 15 does entail expanded disclosures in the financial accounts.
New or amended IFRS, issued but not yet in force IFRS 16 Leases
As of 1 January 2019, IFRS 16 Leases has replaced standard IAS 17 Leases and related interpretations IFRIC 4, SIC 15 and SIC 27. IFRS 16 requires most leases to be reported in the balance sheet. Addtech has mapped and assessed the Group’s leases and analysed the effects of the transition to IFRS 16 occurring during the 2019/2020 financial year, commencing 1 April 2019. Addtech will apply the simplified transition method, entailing comparative data for previous periods not being presented. The lease liability consists of the discounted remaining leasing fees as of 1 April 2019. For all contracts, the right-of-use asset corresponds to an amount equivalent to the lease liability adjusted for prepaid or accrued lease payments recognised in the balance sheet on the initial date of application. Accordingly, the transition to IFRS 16 entails no effect on equity. Addtech’s leases consist currently of leased premises, vehicles and other leases (of, for example, production equipment, office equipment and other assets not considered individually significant). On transition to IFRS 16, these will be reported in the balance sheet, entailing an increase in the Group’s total assets through the addition of right-of-use assets and lease liabilities. The lease fees previously reported as operating expenses will be replaced by depreciation expenses on the rights-of-use which are reported in operating profit and interest on the lease liability, which is reported as a financial expense. The lease fee is divided between amortisation on the lease liability and interest payments. Addtech has chosen to apply the relief rule regarding leases of less than 12 months and for contracts where the underlying asset has a low value. Agreements terminating within 12 months of the transition but with an original maturity of more than 12 months will not be included in the calculation of lease liabilities and right-of-use assets. Accordingly, these will not be included in the amounts reported in the balance sheet, although they will still be reported as operating expenses in the income statement.
In assessing contract duration where there are opportunities for extension or termination, both business strategy and contract-specific conditions are considered in determining whether the Group is reasonably secure in applying them.
On the transition to IFRS 16, all remaining lease fees were calculated applying the margin loan rate. The transition effect on the balance sheet as of 1 April 2019 entails right-of-use assets of SEK 550 million arising on the asset side. On the liability side, lease liabilities totalling SEK 550 million arise, of which non-current liabilities amount to SEK 408 million and current liabilities to SEK 142 million.
The consolidated accounts include the annual accounts of the Parent Company and those companies that are under the con-trolling influence of the Parent Company. A controlling influence exists if the Parent Company has influence over the object of investment, is exposed or entitled to variable yield from its commitment and is able to exert its influence over the investment to affect the yield. In assessing whether a controlling influence exists, potential shares with an entitlement to vote are taken into account, as well as whether de facto control exists. Shareholdings in Group companies are eliminated in accordance with the acquisition method, which means, in brief, that identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities in the acquired company are measured and recognised in the consolidated financial accounts as if they had been acquired by means of direct acquisition and not indirectly by acquiring shares in the company. The valuation is based on fair value. If the value of the net assets is less than the acquisition price, consolidated goodwill arises. If the opposite occurs, the difference is recognised directly in the income statement. Goodwill is determined in local currency and recognised at cost, less any impairment losses. Consolidated equity includes the Parent Company’s equity and the portion of the subsidiaries’ equity earned after the time of acquisition. Companies acquired or disposed of are consolidated or de-consolidated from the date of acquisition or disposal.
Contingent purchase considerations are measured at fair value on the transaction date and are subsequently remeasured on each reporting occasion. Effects of this remeasurement are recognised as income or expenses in consolidated profit for the year. Transaction expenses in conjunction with acquisitions are expensed. It is possible for a holding that is not a controlling interest to be measured at fair value on acquisition, entailing goodwill being included in non-controlling interests. Alternatively, non-controlling interests constitute part of net assets. The choice is determined individually for each acquisition.
Intra-Group receivables and liabilities, as well as transactions between companies within the Group and related unrealised gains, are eliminated in their entirety. Unrealised losses are eliminated in the same way as unrealised gains, unless there is a need to recognise impairment.
Exchange rate effects
Translation of the financial reports of foreign Group companies
Assets and liabilities in foreign operations, including goodwill and other surpluses and deficits on consolidation, are converted to Swedish kronor applying the exchange rate valid on the balance sheet date. Income and expenses in foreign operations are translated to Swedish kronor applying the average rate, which is an approximation of the rates prevailing at the time of each transaction. Translation differences arising on the translation of foreign operations are reported through other comprehensive income, under the translation reserve in equity.
Transactions in foreign currencies
A transaction denominated in a foreign currency is converted to the functional currency at the exchange rate on the transaction date. Monetary assets and liabilities in foreign currency are converted to the functional currency applying the exchange rate prevailing on the balance sheet date. Non-monetary assets and liabilities recognised at historical cost are converted applying the exchange rate on the trans-action date. Exchange differences arising on conversion are reported in the income statement. Exchange differences on operating receivables and operating liabilities are included in operating profit, while ex-change differences on financial receivables and liabilities are reported among financial items.
Financial assets and liabilities, recognition and de-recognition
Financial instruments recognised in the balance sheet primarily include, on the assets side, cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivables and derivatives. Liabilities include accounts payable, loans payable, contingent purchase considerations and derivatives. A financial asset or financial liability is recognised in the balance sheet when the Company becomes a party to the terms and conditions of the instrument. Accounts receivable are recognised in the balance sheet when an invoice has been sent. A liability is recognised when the counter-party has completed its undertaking and a contractual obligation to pay prevails, even if no invoice has yet been received. A financial asset (or part thereof) is removed from the balance sheet when the entitlements of the contract are realised or expire, or if the Company loses control over them. A financial liability (or part thereof) is removed from the balance sheet when the obligation in the contract is fulfilled or otherwise ceases to exist. A financial asset and a financial liability are only offset and recognised at the net amount in the balance sheet when the Company is legally entitled to offset these amounts and the Company intends to settle the items with a net amount or simultaneously realise the asset and settle the liability.
Financial assets and liabilities, measurement and classification
Except those in the category of financial assets measured at fair value through profit, or loss, all financial assets/liabilities (including derivatives) are initially recognised at fair value plus/minus transaction costs. On initial recognition, a financial instrument is classified based on the type of instrument, Addtech’s business model for the instrument and the types of cash flows to which the instrument gives rise. The classification determines how the financial instrument is measured after initial recognition, as described below.
Financial instruments measured at fair value are classified in a hierarchy based on the origin of the data used in the measurement. Level 1 comprises financial instruments with quoted prices in an active market. Level 2 comprises financial instruments measured on the basis of observable market data but not quoted prices in an active market. Level 3 comprises those measured using data, such as cash flow analyses, not based on observable market data.
Described below are principles applied as of 1 April 2018. Financial assets and liabilities reported for the current year at fair value through profit or loss were reported under the equivalent category in the preceding year. The items included for the current year in the category of financial assets measured at amortized cost were, in the comparison year, included in the category of loan receivables and accounts receivable, which were also reported at amortised cost. In the preceding year, the impairment principle was based on identifying objective loss events rather than on expected credit losses, which is the principle applied for the current year, although this has not entailed any material impact for the Group. No material change in value has been identified in the minor holdings of unlisted shares in housing companies that were previously reported at cost and that are, as of the current year, reported as equity instruments at fair value through other comprehensive income. Financial liabilities labelled “Other liabilities” in the comparison year were reported at amortised cost and remained so in the current year.
Financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value through profit or loss
Because hedge accounting is not applies, this category comprises the Group’s derivatives and contingent additional purchase considerations in connection with acquisitions of subsidiaries. These items are reported at fair value in the balance sheet, with changes in value recognised in profit or loss.
Financial assets measured at amortised cost
Holdings in financial assets constituting a liability for the counterparty, and where payments consist exclusively of payments of principal and interest, are reported at amortised cost. The Group’s items in this category consist essentially of accounts receivable, cash and cash equivalents and other operating receivables. Due to the short maturities of these assets and the insignificant effect of discounting, these items are measured at their nominal amount. Accounts receivable and other operating receivables are recognised after deducting expected credit losses, which are assessed foremost on an individual basis and secondarily on the basis of the extent to which payments are overdue. Impairments of accounts receivable are recognised in operating expenses.
Equity instruments recognised at fair value through other comprehensive income
A minor holding of unlisted shares in housing companies is recognised at fair value through other comprehensive income.
Financial liabilities measured at amortised cost
This category essentially consists of loans and accounts payable. The liabilities are measured at amortised cost. Accounts payable are measured without being discounted to their nominal amounts.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents consists of cash funds and immediately available holdings in banks and equivalent institutions, as well as short-term liquid investments that mature within three months of the time of acquisition and that are exposed to only a negligible risk of fluctuation in value.
Derivatives and hedging
Derivative instruments include currency clauses, currency forward agreements and currency swaps used to offset risks of exchange rate fluctuations. An embedded derivative, such as a currency clause, is disclosed separately unless closely related to its host contract. Hedge accounting is not applied. Derivatives are initially recognised at fair value, with the result that transaction costs are charged to profit or loss for the period. Following initial recognition, the derivative instrument is measured at fair value via the income statement.
Increases and decreases in the value of such derivatives are recognised as income and expenses respectively in operating profit or loss or in net financial items, based on the intended use of the derivative and whether its use is related to an operating item or a financial item.
Assets and liabilities, classification
Current assets consist of assets expected to be realised within one year or the Company’s normal business cycle. Other assets are non-current assets. A liability is classified as non-current if, at the end of the reporting period, the Company has an unconditional right to defer settlement for at least 12 months after the reporting period and if it is not an operating debt expected to be settled within the Company’s normal business cycle. Other liabilities are classified as current.
Property, plant and equipment
Property, plant and equipment are recognised at cost, less accumulated depreciation and any impairment. The cost comprises the purchase price, including customs and excise duties, as well as costs directly attributable to the asset to bring it to the location in such condition that it can be used as intended by the acquisition. Discounts etc. are deducted from the purchase price. Examples of directly attributable costs included in the cost are shipping and handling, installation, title registration and consulting services.
In the case of so-called qualifying assets, borrowing expenses are also capitalised in the cost. Qualifying assets do not normally occur within the Group. Additional expenses for a property, plant and equipment item are added to the cost only if they increase the future economic benefits. All other expenses, such as those for repair and maintenance, are expensed on an ongoing basis. Decisive for the assessment of when an additional expense should be added to the cost is whether the expense pertains to the replacement of identified components, or parts thereof, in which case such expenses are capitalised. In cases where new components are created, the expense is also added to the cost. Any undepreciated carrying amounts for replaced components, or parts of components, are retired and expensed in conjunction with the replacement.
Depreciation is applied on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life, taking any residual value at the end of that period into account.
Property, plant and equipment comprising parts with different useful lives are treated as separate components.
The carrying amount for a property, plant and equipment item is removed from the balance sheet on the scrapping or disposal of the as-set, or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use. Gains or losses realised upon the disposal or scrapping of an asset consist of the difference between the selling price and the carrying amount of the asset, less direct selling expenses. Gains or losses are recognised as other operating income or other operating expenses.
|Property, plant and equipment||Useful life|
|Leasehold improvements||3–5 years|
|Land improvements||20 years|
A distinction is made between finance leases and operating leases. A finance lease is characterised by the lessee assuming, in all essential respects, the economic benefits and risks associated with ownership of the asset. If that is not the case, the lease is regarded as an operating lease.
For the most part, the Group uses operating leases, entailing lease payments being charged as an operating expense on a straight-line basis across the term of the lease.
Intangible non-current assets
An intangible asset is an identifiable non-monetary asset, without physical substance, that is used for marketing, producing or supplying goods or services, or for leasing and administration. To be recognised as an asset, it must be probable that the future economic benefits attributable to the asset will benefit the Company and that the cost can be calculated reliably.
Additional expenses for an intangible asset are added to the cost only if they increases the future economic benefits beyond the original assessment and if the expense can be calculated reliably. All other expenses are expensed as they are incurred.
Goodwill represents the difference between the cost of a business combination and the fair value of identifiable assets acquired, liabilities assumed and contingent liabilities.
Goodwill and intangible non-current assets with indefinable useful lives (trademarks) are measured at cost, less any accumulated impairment. Goodwill and trademarks are allocated among cash-generating units or groups of cash-generating units and are not amortised but tested annually for impairment.
Aside from goodwill and trademarks, intangible assets are recognised at their original cost, less accumulated amortisation and impairment.
In the case of so-called qualifying assets, borrowing expenses are also capitalised in the cost. Qualifying assets do not normally occur within the Group. Amortisation is charged on a straight-line basis and is based on the useful lives of the assets, which are reviewed on an annual basis. An asset’s useful life is based on historical experience of use of similar assets, areas of application and other specific features of the asset.
Amortisation is included in cost of sales, selling expenses or administrative expenses, depending on where in the business the assets are used.
Development expenses, where the results of research or other knowledge are applied to achieve new or improved products or processes, are recognised as an asset in the balance sheet if the product is technically and commercially viable and the Company has sufficient resources to complete development and then use or sell the intangible asset. Other development expenses are expensed as they are incurred.
Expenses for internally generated goodwill and trademarks are recognised as expenses in profit or loss as they are incurred.
|Intangible non-current assets||Useful life|
|Capitalised development projects||3-5 years|
|Customer relationships||5–10 years|
|Supplier relationships||5–33 years|
|Software for IT operations||3–5 years|
Impairment of property, plant and equipment, intangible assets and participations in subsidiaries and associated companies
The carrying amounts of Group assets are tested as soon as there is an indication that the asset in question has decreased in value. If there is such an indication, the need for impairment is determined after calculating the recoverable amount of the asset, which is the asset’s value in use or its fair value, whichever is higher. Impairment is recognised if the recoverable amount is less than the carrying amount. The value in use is calculated as the present value of future payments that the Company is expected to receive by using the asset. The estimated residual value at the end of the useful life is included in the value in use. If the recoverable amount of an individual asset cannot be determined, the recoverable amount is set at the recoverable amount for the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs. A cash-generating unit is the smallest group of assets that give rises to continuous payment in-flows that are independent of other assets or groups of assets. Good-will on consolidation is attributed to the business areas (which coincide with the Group’s operating segments) with which the goodwill is associated. Impairment is reversed when the grounds for the impairment entirely or partially cease to apply. However, this does not apply to goodwill or intangible non-current assets with indeterminable useful lives.
In addition to the above, for goodwill, other intangible assets with an indeterminable useful life and intangible assets not yet ready for use, the recoverable amount is calculated annually.
Inventories, that is, raw materials and finished goods for resale, are carried at the lower of cost and net realisable value, hence taking into account the risk of obsolescence. The cost is calculated using the first in, first out (FIFO) principle or weighted average prices.
In the case of finished and semi-finished goods manufactured in-house, the cost consists of direct manufacturing costs and a reason-able portion of indirect manufacturing costs. Measurement takes normal capacity utilisation into account.
No express measure related to equity is applied internally. Externally, Addtech’s objective is to maintain a robust equity/assets ratio.
Addtech’s dividend policy for 2018/2019 involves a pay-out ratio exceeding 30 percent of consolidated average profit after tax over a business cycle.
Repurchasing of treasury shares occurs, and the Board normally pro-poses obtaining a mandate to repurchase treasury shares that entails acquiring an amount of shares such that Addtech’s own holding at no time exceeds 10 percent of all shares in the Company. Repurchasing serves to provide the Board with increased scope for action in its work with the Company’s capital structure, to enable the use of repurchased shares as payment in acquisitions, and to secure the Company’s commitments in existing incentive programmes.
The entire purchase consideration for share repurchase is charged against retained earnings. Proceeds from disposals of equity instruments are recognised as an increase in retained earnings, as are any transaction expenses.
Employee benefits following cessation of employment, pension commitments
Addtech has defined-contribution and defined-benefit pension plans in Sweden, Norway and the UK. The plans cover a large number of employees. The defined-benefit pension plans are based mainly on the individual’s final salary. Group subsidiaries in other countries have mainly defined-contribution pension plans.
In defined-contribution plans, the Company pays stipulated fees to a separate legal entity and has no obligation to pay additional fees. Expenses are charged to the Group’s profit or loss at the rate at which the benefits are earned. In defined-benefit pension plans, benefits are paid to current and former employees based on their salary upon retirement and the number of years for which they were employed by the Company. The Group bears the risk for payment of promised benefits.
The Group’s net obligation regarding defined-benefit plans is calculated individually for each plan by estimating future benefits that employees have earned through employment in current and previous periods. These benefits are discounted to a present value. Any unreported costs related to employment in previous periods and the fair value of any plan assets are deducted.
Defined-benefit pension plans are both funded and unfunded. When a plan is funded, assets have been set aside, these are referred to as plan as-sets. These plan assets can only be used for payments of benefits in accordance with the pension agreements. The net value of the estimated present value of the obligations and the fair value of plan assets is recognised in the balance sheet, either as a provision or as a non-current financial receivable. When a surplus in a plan cannot be fully utilised, only the portion of the surplus that the Company can recover through reduced future fees or repayments is recognised. A surplus in one plan is only offset by a deficit in another plan if the Company is entitled to utilise a surplus in one plan to settle a deficit in another plan, or if the obligations are intended to be settled on a net basis.
The pension expense and pension obligation for defined-benefit pension plans are calculated using the Projected Unit Credit Method. This method distributes expenses for pensions at the rate at which employees perform services for the Company that increase their rights to future benefits. The aim is to expense expected future pension disbursements in a manner entailing an even cost over the employee’s period of employment. This calculation takes into account anticipated future salary increases and anticipated inflation. The Company’s commitment is calculated annually by independent actuaries. The discount rate used is equivalent to the interest rate on high-quality corporate bonds or mortgage bonds with a maturity equivalent to the average maturity of the obligation and currency. For Swedish pension liabilities, the interest rate for Swedish housing bonds is used as a basis and for Norwegian pension liabilities, the interest rate for Norwegian corporate bonds is used.
Revaluations may arise when establishing the present value and fair value of the plan assets for the obligation. These may arise either because the actual outcome differs from previously made assumptions (known as experience-based adjustments), or because assumptions were changed. Such revaluations are recognised in the balance sheet and in profit or loss under other comprehensive income. The net present value of the de-fined-benefit obligation is established by means of discounting estimated future cash flows. The discount rate used is equivalent to the interest rate on high-quality corporate bonds or government bonds with a maturity equivalent to the average maturity of the obligation and currency.
A portion of the Group’s defined-benefit pension commitments has been financed through premiums to Alecta. Because, the requisite information cannot be obtained from Alecta, these pension commitments are re-ported as a defined-contribution pension plan.
The special employer’s contribution constitutes part of the actuarial assumptions and is therefore recognised as part of the net obligation/asset. For reasons of simplicity, the part of the special employer’s contribution that is calculated based on the Swedish Act on Safeguarding Pension Obligations in legal entities is recognised as an accrued expense rather than as part of the net obligation/asset.
Policyholder tax is recognised on an ongoing basis for the period to which the tax relates and is therefore not included in the calculation of liabilities. In the case of funded plans, the tax is on the return on plan assets and is recognised in other comprehensive income. For unfunded or partially unfunded plans, the tax is levied on profit for the year.
When the expenses for a pension are determined differently in a legal entity than in the Group, a provision or claim for taxes on pension expenses is recognised, such as a special employer’s contribution for Swedish companies based on this difference. The present value of the provision or claim is not calculated.
Benefits upon termination of employment
A cost for benefits in conjunction with termination of employment is recognised only if there is a formal, detailed plan to terminate employment prior to the normal date.
Short-term benefits to employees are calculated without discounting and are recognised as an expense when the related services are performed.
A provision for the expected costs of bonus disbursements is recognised when the Group has a valid legal or informal obligation to make such disbursements as a result of services received from employees and where the obligation can be calculated reliably.
Share-based incentive programmes
The Group’s share-based incentive programmes make it possible for Group management to purchase shares in the Company. The employees have paid a market premium for call options on Class B shares.
The programme includes a subsidy so that the employee receives the same sum as the option premium paid in the form of cash payment, i.e. salary. This subsidy shall be paid two years after the decision to implement the issue, providing that the option holder remains employed by the Group and owns call options at that time. The subsidy, and related social security expenses, is distributed as a personnel expense over the vesting period. Addtech is not obliged to repurchase the options when an employee resigns from employment. Holders may redeem options irrespective of continued employment within the Group. See also Note 6.
Provisions and contingent liabilities
A provision is recognised in the balance sheet when the Company has a formal or informal commitment as a result of an event that has occurred, it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the commitment and the amount can be estimated reliably. If the effect is material, the provision is based on a present value calculation.
Provisions are made for future expenses resulting from warranty commitments. The calculation is based on expenditure during the financial year for similar commitments or the estimated costs for each undertaking. Provisions for restructuring costs are recognised when a detailed restructuring plan has been adopted and the restructuring has either begun or been announced.
Contingent liabilities are recognised when a possible commitment exists stemming from past events and the existence of the commitment is confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not entirely within the Company’s control. Other commitments are also recognised as contingent liabilities if they result from past events but are not recognised as a liability or provision because it is unlikely that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the commitment or because the size of the commitment cannot be determined with sufficient accuracy.
The Group recognises revenue when the Group fulfils a performance commitment, which is when a promised good or service is delivered to the customer and the customer assumes control of the goods or services. Control of a performance commitment can be transferred over time or at a particular point in time. The revenue consists of the amount that the Company expects to receive in payment for goods or services transferred. For the Group to be able to recognise revenue from agreements with customers, each customer agreement is analysed in accordance with the five-step model included in the standard:
Step 1: Identify an agreement between at least two parties that entails an entitlement and a commitment.
Step 2: Identify the various commitments. An agreement includes undertakings to transfer goods or services to the customer (performance commitments). All commitments that are distinguishable in nature are to be reported separately.
Step 3: Determine the transaction price. The transaction price is the amount of compensation the Company is expected to receive in exchange for the promised goods or services. The transaction price must be adjusted for variable components, including any discounts.
Step 4: Distribute the transaction price between the various performance commitments. Usually, the Company is able to allocate the transaction price of each individual item or service based on a stand-alone sales price.
Step 5: Fulfilment of the performance commitments and recognition of revenue, either over time or at a particular point in time, depending on the nature of the performance commitment. The amount recognised as revenue is the amount that the Company has previously allocated to the performance commitment concerned.
The Group’s revenue consists of sales of high-tech products and solutions to customers, primarily in manufacturing industries and infrastructure. The Group’s sales consist mainly of sales of goods, including of service assignments to some extent.
Sales of goods
Sales of goods occur in all of the Group’s segments. Sales consist mainly of standard products, but also, to some extent, of proprietary manufactured products. Framework agreements with customers usually occur where an agreement with a customer is considered to arise only once the customer has placed an order based on the terms of the framework agreement, since it is only at this time that enforceable rights and obligations arise for the Group and the customer. The period between an order being placed and goods being delivered is normally brief. Each separate product in the order is considered to constitute a separate performance commitment.
In the relevant agreement with the customer, the transaction price usually consists only of fixed amounts. To the extent that the transaction price includes variable amounts, the Group estimates the amount to which it will be entitled and includes this in the transaction price, taking limitations of uncertain amounts into account. Revenue is reported on a single occasion because the conditions for transfer of control over time are not met. The Group considers control to have transferred on completion of delivery in accordance with applicable delivery terms, which coincides with the time at which the risks and benefits transfer to the customer.
Service assignments occur primarily in the Energy and Industrial Processes segments. These assignments essentially comprise project agreements in which the Group delivers and, to a certain extent, installs products for specific customer projects. Such assignments are considered to constitute a combined performance commitment, since no individual product is distinct within the framework of the agreements. The transaction price normally consists only of fixed amounts. Because control of the performance commitments is considered to be transferred to the customer over time, revenue is also recognised over time. The Group applies a production method for measuring progress towards completion of a performance commitment.
Financial income and expenses
Interest income on receivables and interest expenses on liabilities are computed using the effective interest method. The effective interest rate is the rate that makes the present value of all future incoming and outgoing payments during the term equal to the carrying amount of the receivable or liability. Interest income includes accrued rebates, premiums and other differences between the original value of the receivable and the amount received on maturity.
Tax expenses/income are recognised in the income statement, except when the underlying transaction is recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, in which case the associated tax effect is recognised in other comprehensive income or in equity. Current tax refers to tax that is to be paid or refunded for the current year. This also includes adjustments of current tax attributable to prior periods.
Deferred tax is calculated using the liability method based on temporary differences between carrying amounts and tax bases of as-sets and liabilities. The amounts are calculated depending on how the temporary differences are expected to be settled and by applying the tax rates and tax rules enacted or announced as per the balance sheet date. Temporary differences are not taken into account in Group goodwill, nor in differences attributable to participations in subsidiaries or associated companies owned by Group companies outside Sweden that are not expected to be taxed in the foreseeable future. In the consolidated financial statements, untaxed reserves are allocated to deferred tax liability and equity. Deferred tax assets related to deductible temporary differences and tax loss carry-forwards are only recognised to the extent it is likely they will reduce tax payments in the future.
Assets and liabilities as well as income and expenses are attributed to the operating segment in which they are used, earned and consumed, respectively. The operating segment’s earnings are monitored by the highest executive decision-maker, i.e. the CEO of Addtech.
The division into operating segments is based on the business area organisation, by which the Group’s operations are managed and monitored. These are Components, Energy, Industrial Process and Power Solutions. Operations that do not belong to these areas of operation are included under the heading Parent Company and Group items.
Earnings per share
Addtech discloses earnings per share (EPS) in direct connection with the income statement. Calculation of EPS is based on consolidated profit or loss for the year attributable to Parent Company shareholders and on the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year. To calculate diluted EPS, the average number of shares is adjusted to take into account the effect of potentially dilutive ordinary shares that, during the periods reported, result from options awarded to employees.
Cash flow statement
In preparing the cash flow statement, the indirect method was applied as per IAS 7 Statement of Cash Flows. In addition to flows of cash and bank funds, current investments maturing within three months of the acquisition date that can be converted into bank deposits at a previously known amount are classified as cash and cash equivalents.
Events after the balance sheet date
Events that occurred after the balance sheet date but whose circumstances were identifiable at the end of the reporting period are included in the reporting. If significant events occurred after the balance sheet date but did not affect the recognised earnings of operations or financial position, the event is disclosed under a separate heading in the Administration Report and in note 33.
Related party disclosures
Where appropriate, information will be provided about transactions and agreements with related companies and natural persons. In the consolidated accounts, intra-Group transactions fall out-side this reporting requirement.
Alternative key financial indicators
The Company presents certain financial measures in the Annual Report that are not defined in accordance with IFRS. The Company believes that these measures provide valuable supplementary information to investors and the Company’s management as they enable the evaluation of trends and the Company’s performance. Since not all companies calculate financial measures in the same way, these are not always comparable with measures used by other companies. These financial measures should therefore not be seen as compensation for measures that are defined in accordance with IFRS. For definitions and reconciliation tables of the key financial indicators used by Addtech, see page 104.
Government grants refers to support from the government in the form of transfers of resources to a company in exchange for that company fulfilling (in the past or future) certain conditions regarding its operations.
The Group is active in areas where government grants are insignificant in scope.
The Swedish Annual Accounts Act requires more information than IFRS, including information about the gender distribution of the Board of Directors and Group management. Data on gender distribution refer to the situation as per the balance sheet date. “Board members” are members of the boards of directors of the Parent Company and Group companies who have been elected by General Meeting. “Senior executives” are members of Group Management and the Managing Directors and Deputy Managing Directors of Group companies.
Parent company accounting principles
The Parent Company applies the same accounting policies as the Group, except where the Swedish Annual Accounts Act and the Swedish Act on Safeguarding Pension Obligations prescribe different procedures, or if the connection to taxation necessitates different accounting.
The Parent Company prepared its annual accounts in accordance with the Swedish Annual Accounts Act (1995:1554) and recommendation RFR 2 Accounting for Legal Entities, of the Swedish Financial Reporting Board. RFR 2 prescribes that, in the annual accounts of its legal entity, the Parent Company shall apply all EU-approved IFRS and standard interpretations to the greatest extent possible within the scope of the Annual Accounts Act and taking the relationship between accounting and taxation into account. The recommendation specifies which exceptions from, and additions to, IFRS must be made.
Interests in Group companies are recognised in the Parent Company using the cost method, entailing transaction costs being included in the carrying amount for holdings in subsidiaries. Any changes in liabilities for contingent purchase considerations are added to or reduce the cost. The Group expenses transaction expenses, while entering changes in liabilities for contingent purchase considerations as income or expenses. Instead of IAS 19, the Swedish Act on Safeguarding Pension Obligations is applied in the Parent Company when calculating defined-benefit pension plans. The most significant differences compared with IAS 19 are the method for determining the discount rate, that the de-fined benefit obligation is calculated based on current salaries with-out assuming future salary increases and that all actuarial gains and losses are recognised in profit or loss as they occur.
The Parent Company recognises untaxed reserves including deferred tax liabilities, rather than dividing them into deferred tax liabilities and equity as is done for the Group.
Group contributions are recognised in the Parent Company in accordance with the alternative rule. A Group contribution received from a subsidiary by a Parent Company, or a Group contribution paid from a Parent Company to a subsidiary is recognised in the Parent Company as an appropriation. Shareholder contributions are recognised directly in the equity of the recipient and are capitalised in the contributor’s shares and participations, to the extent that no impairment needs to be recognised.